Covid-19 suspends classes from 99.3% of basic education schools
This is what the IBGE survey conducted across the country reveals.
Published in 03/12/2021 - 10:03 By Alana Gandra - Repórter da Agência Brasil - Brasília
The survey Synthesis of Social Indicators (SIS): an analysis of the living conditions of the Brazilian population, released today (3) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in Rio de Janeiro, reveals that the average time of suspension of activities teaching and learning in 2020, due to the pandemic, totaled 279.4 days in Brazil.
In the public network, the average of suspended activities in person was 287.5 days, and in the private network, 247.7 days. Overall, 99.3% of basic education schools suspended classroom activities and 90.1% did not return in the 2020 school year.
The longest total average suspension time from in-person classes was identified in the Northeast region of the country (299.2 days), with emphasis on the public network (307.1 days). In the private education network, the longest average time of suspension from in-person classes was observed in the Southeast Region (250.8 days).
The IBGE informed that Brazil is among the countries that had the longest period of suspension of in-person classes, according to the global monitoring of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco).
In November of last year, the IBGE found that 2.4% of students aged between six and 17 years were normally attending in-person classes and 5.4% partially, while 92.2% did not have in-person classes. Of this total, school activities were not available for 10.8%.
In basic education, 42.6% of schools promoted classes over the internet, 35.5% in the public network and 69.8% in the private network. The lowest percentages of adoption of this teaching strategy were identified in Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Roraima: 8.1%, 9.9%, 13.2% and 13.3%, respectively. On the other hand, the highest percentages were seen in Ceará (61.8%) and in the Federal District (82.9%).
In 2019, 54% of students aged 15 to 17 had internet and a computer or notebook at home, with 48.6% in the public network and 90.5% in the private network. Among white students in this age group, the total reached 67.3%, against 46.8% for black or brown students, showing a difference of 20.5 percentage points.
At the same time, 9.2% of public schools provided equipment (computer, notebook , smartphones ) for use by students during the 2020 school year (8.7% of public schools and 11.2% of private schools). The lowest percentages in the public network were found in Amapá, Rondônia and Ceará (between 3.2% and 3.5%), while the highest percentages were registered in Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo and the Federal District (18.1% , 18.6% and 21.9%, respectively).
The highest percentages of students aged six to 17 years old who attended schools without on-site activities and without offering school activities were found, in November last year, in the North Region (25.4%) and the lowest in the South Region (2 .3%), also being higher in the rural area (15.9%) and in the public network (12.4%), which is 4.3 times higher than in the private network.
For the 15 to 17-year-old group, with official secondary school attendance age, 35.6% of students dedicated less than two hours a day to school activities in November 2020, compared to 43.9% of students aged 6 to 14 deity. According to the survey, the incidence of less dedication to studies is higher among those who attended the public network (39.2%) and among those with less income.
According to the IBGE survey, most of the population points out problems at home, especially among blacks or browns. Identifying problems is more common among younger people and those with lower incomes.
In relation to commuting to work in capitals and metropolitan regions, it was observed that blacks or browns carried out the highest proportion of long commutes in 2017 and 2018 (18.1% against 14.6% among whites). Among domestic workers, 28.5% commuted for more than one hour.
Employees with a formal contract had longer trips (22.5%) than employees without a formal contract (14.7%) and those on their own (7.9%).
The highest proportions of employed persons with commuting time to their main job, in 2017 and 2018, greater than one hour, were seen in the metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro (26.2%), São Paulo (22.8%) and Belo Horizon (16.5%).
The Synthesis survey also showed that, in Brazil, in 2017/2018, 51.4% of tenants had only a verbal or oral contract. This group represented 8.6% of the country's population. The situation is related to the person's income and color or race.
Among blacks or browns, the informality rate in rental contracts reached 58.7% against 42.7% among whites. Based on the Household Budget Survey (POF), 10.3% of the country's population lived in households subject to flooding. In the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, 28.2% of the population was in this situation, constituting the highest percentage among urban areas in Brazilian capitals.
In the period from 2010 to 2017, the highest final consumption expenditure on health as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was observed in 2015 (9.1%), 2016 (9.3%) and 2017 (9.2%) . In those same years, the highest health expenditures occurred by families (5.2%, 5.3% and 5.4% of GDP), as well as by the government (3.9%, 4% and 3.9% of GDP, respectively).
The average monthly per capita expenditure on health in Brazil in 2017/2018 was R$133.24, equivalent to 9.7% of expenditures. In the urban area, this value rose to R$ 142.59, against R$ 79.14 in the rural area. The monthly expense per individual was R$168.54 among white men and R$91.29 among black or brown men.
Among women, spending on health rose to R$188.05 for white or colored women, and to R$98.99 for black or mixed color women. The average monthly health expenditure increases as the person's age increases. For the age group of 60 years or more, it reached R$ 268.65, the same occurring in relation to complete higher education (R$ 290.88). Spending on health is also higher for individuals with higher incomes.
Restrictions on access to medicines and health services, in the period 2017/2018, were greater for single-parent female families, with more restrictions on black or brown color or race women, with 14-year-old children at home (35.6 % in health services and 22.5% in medicines). People without health insurance face twice as many restrictions, informed the IBGE.
In establishments with public service provided by the Unified Health System (SUS), hospital admissions grew 4.38% from 2019 to 2020, while urgency increased 3.23% in the same period. In establishments with private care (private and health insurance), there was a retraction.
The survey also found that the total number of Brazilians, in 2019, without medical appointments for more than two years reached 11.7% of the population aged 18 years or over. Of this total, 20.3% were black or brown men and 14.5% were white men.
Health services were used in hospitalizations for clinical treatment by 39.5% of Brazilians, with the maximum use for this purpose being seen in Maranhão (54.2%) and the minimum (32.5%) in São Paulo. Surgical admissions averaged 38.6% in the country, with a maximum of 46.3% in Rio de Janeiro and a minimum of 25.6% in Amapá.
Assistance with health insurance showed an average of 30.2% in Brazil, with a maximum of 50.1% in the Federal District and a minimum of 6.6% in Maranhão. In the Unified Health System (SUS), the average in Brazil was 63.3%, with a maximum care of 89.3% in Maranhão and a minimum of 42.9% in the Federal District.
In 2020, there were 1.6 million deaths, an increase of 15% compared to 2019. According to the Ministry of Health, from 2010 to 2019 the average annual growth of total deaths in the country was 1%.
In 2019, for the 60-69-year-old group, the mortality registered by some infectious or parasitic disease reached 9,000 people and no case by the new coronavirus; in the following year, there were 56 thousand deaths, of which 47 thousand due to coronavirus.
Taking into account the infection by the new coronavirus of unspecified location, the white population had a higher percentage in the group aged 70 years or more (30.1%). Blacks or browns in this age group registered 24.3%. On the other hand, in the other age groups, blacks or browns had higher percentages than whites (24.9% against 20.7%, respectively).
Text translated using artificial intelligence.
Edition: Kleber Sampaio